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Apamin is a peptide bee venom toxin that acts as an antagonist at K+ channels. Apamin inhibits small- and intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK2/3, IK) channels; it blocks the pore region, preventing K+ ion transport and lowering the threshold for action potential development. Apamin exhibits neuroprotective and cognition enhancing benefits, improving visiospatial learning deficits in animal models undergoing a water maze task in an in vivo model of neurofibromatosis 1.

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Dalaklioglu S, Ozbey G. Role of different types of potassium channels in the relaxation of corpus cavernosum induced by resveratrol. Pharmacogn Mag. 2014 Jan;10(37):47-52. PMID: 24696545.

Kallarackal AJ, Simard JM, Bailey AM. The effect of apamin, a small conductance calcium activated potassium (SK) channel blocker, on a mouse model of neurofibromatosis 1. Behav Brain Res. 2013 Jan 15;237:71-5. PMID: 22983217.

Lamy C, Goodchild SJ, Weatherall KL, et al. Allosteric block of KCa2 channels by apamin. J Biol Chem. 2010 Aug 27;285(35):27067-77. PMID: 20562108.