E by starting the alysis with all five marks in the model with (v) + j v j. The marks with nonsignificant coefficients are j elimited one particular at a time, each time the mark with all the least significant pvalue is elimited. The backward choice procedure retains the last two marks v and v. For the Telepathine site remaining two PubMed ID:http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/150/3/463 marks v and v, we fit the model with (v) + v + v + v v. The goodness of fit of model with (v) offered by is conducted following the process givenPH model with multivariate continuous marks Table. The specifications in the five selected marks depending on the step dataMark v v v v vTheType Epipred NetMHC Epipred Epipred EpipredRef HXB HXB Step Step StepProtein EnvRevTatVifVprVpu EnvRevTatVifVprVpu Gag Pol Nefreference HIV sequence, either a sequence represented within the vaccine tested in the Step trial (Step) or even a frequently studied central HIV reference sequence that was not in the vaccine (HXB).Table. The pvalues from the LRT, Wald test, and score test for testing H, H, and H for the bivariate marks (v, v ) for the step dataMark selection (v, v ) Hypothesis H H H H LRT.. Wald.. Score..in Section together with the test statistic S sup k K supt,v,z Wk (t, v, z). We set f k (z) and K. The pvalue is calculated as the percentage of copies of S sup k K supt,v,z Wk (t, v, z) higher than S. The pvalue for the bivariate mark choice is These result supports that the model match is adequate. ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ The estimates (,,, ) are ( .). The typical errors of (,,, ) are. Table shows the pvalues of the LRT, Wald test (Wald), and score test (Score) for testing H described in Section All 4 hypotheses are rejected with borderline significance level near with consistent pvalues across the three tests. Since the general infection price was higher inside the vaccine than placebo group (Cox model RR CI, p. ), we estimate the markspecific RR as RR(v, v ) exp( (v, v )) alternatively with the markspecific vaccine efficacy; thus for the step trial the alysis focuses on whether and how the vaccine selectively elevated the susceptibility to HIV infection. Determined by the point estimates, the estimated RR, R R(v, v ) (its typical error), equals. , and. for (v, v ) ,, and, respectively. Hence the confidence intervals for R R(v, v ) is (.), (.), and (.) at (v, v ) ,, and, respectively. The interpretation is that the vaccine had no impact on infection against HIV when each distances are within the variety from. to SIMULATION STUDY. Numerical performance of estimation and hypothesis testing procedures Within this section, we conduct a simulation study to examine finite sample properties with the proposed estimation and hypothesis testing procedures. The simulations are set up to mimic the step information in the HIV vaccine efficacy trial performed in North and South America (Buchbinder and other individuals, ). We take K strata corresponding to two levels of neutralization titer Ad. Two sample sizes n k and are deemed for each stratum. The baseline hazard functions k (t, v) are set as constants k, with.Y. SUND OTHERSTable. Summary statistics and coverage probabilities in the self-assurance intervals for (,,, ) under models M, M, and MModel M (n, n ) (, ) Coefficient Bias .. . .. . .. .. . . . . . SSE………… ESE………… CP…………(, )M(, )(, )M(, )(, )and The covariate Z k is really a Bernoulli random variable with Z k corresponding towards the vaccine group and Z k for the placebo group. We take P(Z k ) The censoring time Ck follows an FPTQ cost exponential distribution, independent of (Tk, Vk ). We co.E by starting the alysis with all 5 marks inside the model with (v) + j v j. The marks with nonsignificant coefficients are j elimited one at a time, every time the mark with all the least significant pvalue is elimited. The backward choice procedure retains the final two marks v and v. For the remaining two PubMed ID:http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/150/3/463 marks v and v, we fit the model with (v) + v + v + v v. The goodness of match of model with (v) given by is performed following the procedure givenPH model with multivariate continuous marks Table. The specifications of the five selected marks depending on the step dataMark v v v v vTheType Epipred NetMHC Epipred Epipred EpipredRef HXB HXB Step Step StepProtein EnvRevTatVifVprVpu EnvRevTatVifVprVpu Gag Pol Nefreference HIV sequence, either a sequence represented inside the vaccine tested inside the Step trial (Step) or maybe a usually studied central HIV reference sequence that was not within the vaccine (HXB).Table. The pvalues on the LRT, Wald test, and score test for testing H, H, and H for the bivariate marks (v, v ) for the step dataMark choice (v, v ) Hypothesis H H H H LRT.. Wald.. Score..in Section using the test statistic S sup k K supt,v,z Wk (t, v, z). We set f k (z) and K. The pvalue is calculated because the percentage of copies of S sup k K supt,v,z Wk (t, v, z) greater than S. The pvalue for the bivariate mark choice is These outcome supports that the model match is sufficient. ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ The estimates (,,, ) are ( .). The regular errors of (,,, ) are. Table shows the pvalues on the LRT, Wald test (Wald), and score test (Score) for testing H described in Section All four hypotheses are rejected with borderline significance level near with constant pvalues across the 3 tests. Because the all round infection price was higher in the vaccine than placebo group (Cox model RR CI, p. ), we estimate the markspecific RR as RR(v, v ) exp( (v, v )) as an alternative of your markspecific vaccine efficacy; therefore for the step trial the alysis focuses on regardless of whether and how the vaccine selectively enhanced the susceptibility to HIV infection. Based on the point estimates, the estimated RR, R R(v, v ) (its regular error), equals. , and. for (v, v ) ,, and, respectively. Therefore the confidence intervals for R R(v, v ) is (.), (.), and (.) at (v, v ) ,, and, respectively. The interpretation is the fact that the vaccine had no effect on infection against HIV when each distances are in the variety from. to SIMULATION STUDY. Numerical functionality of estimation and hypothesis testing procedures Within this section, we conduct a simulation study to examine finite sample properties of the proposed estimation and hypothesis testing procedures. The simulations are setup to mimic the step data in the HIV vaccine efficacy trial conducted in North and South America (Buchbinder and other people, ). We take K strata corresponding to two levels of neutralization titer Ad. Two sample sizes n k and are regarded as for every stratum. The baseline hazard functions k (t, v) are set as constants k, with.Y. SUND OTHERSTable. Summary statistics and coverage probabilities with the confidence intervals for (,,, ) under models M, M, and MModel M (n, n ) (, ) Coefficient Bias .. . .. . .. .. . . . . . SSE………… ESE………… CP…………(, )M(, )(, )M(, )(, )and The covariate Z k is really a Bernoulli random variable with Z k corresponding towards the vaccine group and Z k for the placebo group. We take P(Z k ) The censoring time Ck follows an exponential distribution, independent of (Tk, Vk ). We co.