Icated that human MC3R Purity & Documentation WJ-MSCs may be suitable for building a cell model in vitro, to elucidate potential molecular mechanisms on the fetal origination of adult osteoarthritis and predict cartilage dysplasia and subsequent susceptibility to adult osteoarthritis. In this study, we established a two-step model depending on three-dimensional chondrogenic differentiation of WJMSCs to mimic cartilage improvement in utero and also the inflammatory stimulation that had occurred beneath unfavorable situations in adulthood in vivo. We aimed to investigate the capacity of chondrogenic differentiation of human WJ-MSCs from IUGR newborns plus the subsequent susceptibility to an osteoarthritis-like phenotype.Qi et al. Stem Cell Research Therapy(2021) 12:Page three ofFurthermore, we sought to elucidate the initial factor and possible pathway programmed by epigenetic modification adjustments involved in these phenomena. Lastly, the epigenetic imprinting was verified inside the rat IUGR models and human umbilical cord with IUGR, which provided a promising early-warning biomarker for fetal-originated adult osteoarthritis.resuspended in 0.5 ml PBS and after that analyzed making use of a BD FACS Canto flow cytometer (Becton Dickinson).Establishment of two-step cell model and cell treatmentMethodsClinical populations and sample ACAT2 list collectionWith the written consent with the parents and the approval (No. 2016016) with the Ethics Committee of our institute, all umbilical cord specimens were obtained quickly from the newborn by cesarean operation at the Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University and collected in sterile boxes containing standard saline.Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)The concentrations of serum cortisol have been measured by ELISA kit (R D, Minneapolis, MN, USA), following the manufacturer’s protocols.Isolation and culture of human WJ-MSCsHuman WJ-MSCs have been isolated as previously described . Briefly, MSCs were isolated from collected human umbilical cords within 2 h. Removing the umbilical arteries and umbilical vein, Wharton’s jelly was peeled off from the remaining component of the umbilical cords and transferred to a sterile container then cut into pieces smaller sized than 0.5 cm3. The minced Wharton’s jelly was digested for four h in a 50-ml sterile centrifuge tube with 30-ml culture medium containing collagenase of kind I (Invitrogen, Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., USA) at 0.2 in an incubator (5 carbon dioxide, 37 ). Soon after centrifuging the liquid at 300 for 15 min and discarding the supernatants, the cells were resuspended in DMEM/F12 medium (Gibco BRL, Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., USA) with ten fetal bovine serum (Gibco BRL, Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., USA) and 1 penicillinstreptomycin (Gibco BRL, Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., USA) in humidified air with 5 carbon dioxide at 37 . The WJ-MSCs had been passaged once the flask reached around 80 confluence and also the fourth passage was used for the following experiments.Characterization of WJ-MSCs by flow cytometryWJ-MSCs had been cultured in alginate beads following the modified technique described by De Ceuninck et al. . Briefly, WJ-MSCs cultured in monolayer were trypsinized, washed, and centrifuged. Then, the WJ-MSCs were suspended at a concentration of three 106 cells/ml in a 1.25 alginate (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) in 0.15 M NaCl and gradually dropped into 102 mM CaCl2 option to form alginate beads. The beads have been cultured with a chondrogenic medium: DMEM/F12 medium containing 1 insulin-transferrin-selenous (ITS) (S.